新闻是有分量的

时时彩天游平台'(3)

2019-05-01 10:34栏目:新闻

Oumou Nyero住在Torodi,尼日尔的一个农村地区。她生育了八个孩子,死了一个。尽管这让人悲伤,但这种情况并不罕见。在尼日尔农村地区,几乎在每六个孩子中有一个在六岁前死亡。Nyero现年43,她认为生孩子的日子已经到头了,除非上有天意。她是穆斯林,传统保守,带着面纱。但她乐意谈论生育,其间一直面带笑容。生八次孩子着并非易事。当我问她有没有生过双胞胎,Nyero咧嘴笑着,竖起食指,说:“没有。一个。一个。一个。一个。”每说一次“一个”,她都摇晃着她的指头,鼓起她的脸,以此来强调生孩子的艰辛。

She is intensely proud of her brood—three surviving boys and four girls, aged between two and 21, and delighted that there are so many of them. “It is very, very important to have children,” she says, sitting on a wicker chair in the shade of a dusty tree.

她以她那群孩子为傲——活下来的3个男孩和4个女孩,他们年龄在2岁到21岁之间。有这么多孩子,她感到十分开心。“有孩子是特别特别重要的,”在一棵满是灰尘的树下,她坐在一张藤椅上乘凉,感叹道。

Notes

brood: n. A large family of children.

eg: ’she was brought up as part of a brood of eight’

Ms Nyero’s view is typical for someone in her circumstances, and perfectly rational. Her family are poor and rural. Her husband is a small farmer, one of the most precarious jobs in the world. She works for five hours a day selling millet snacks by the side of the road. Having lots of children is an investment that pays off quickly. From a young age, her brood can help in the fields, gather wood, fetch water and do all kinds of odd jobs to eke out the family budget. A local proverb sums it up: “A child comes with two hands and only one mouth.”

对有相同处境的人而言, Nyero的观点很典型,也十分理性。她的家庭处在农村,穷困潦倒。她的丈夫是一位小农场主,是世界上最不稳定的职业之一。她每天在道路旁卖五个小时的黍米食品。多生育是一项回报快的投资。她的一大群孩子自小就可以在田地里帮忙,收集木材,取水以及做其他可以给家庭带来收益的各种各样的零散工作。当地的一句谚语是这样总结的:“一个孩子生来有两只手,却只有一张嘴。”

Notes

Eke out:Manage to make a living with difficulty.

eg:’many traders barely eked out a living’

Having a large family is also an insurance policy. Some may die, others may turn out to be feckless. “It is better to have many children, because you cannot tell if you will need them or not,” says Ms Nyero. In the absence of a public safety-net, “children will take care of you in old age.”

拥有一个大家庭也权当是买保险。有些孩子可能会死掉,有些孩子可能不争气。“最好还是多生些孩子,因为你不知道你会不会需要他们,”Nyero说道。在公共安全网缺席的情况下,“孩子在你年老的时候会照顾你。”

There are intangible benefits, too. For a woman, “it raises your value if you have more [children],” says Ms Nyero. “If you have many, even the friends of your children pay you respect.” By contrast, a failure to breed carries a social stigma. In rural Niger, a woman is not considered an adult unless she has children, observes Alison Heller of the University of Maryland, the author of “Fistula Politics: Birthing Injuries and the Quest for Continence in Niger”. In parts of the country, women whose children all die are known as wabi, meaning a tree whose fruit falls off without ripening.

多生育还有无形的好处。对于一个女性,“如果你有更多的孩子,你的价值也随之增加,” Nyero如是说。“如果你有很多孩子,甚至于你孩子的朋友都会对你尊敬有加。”与之相反,不育承载着社会的污名。据马里兰大学的Alison Heller观察,在尼日尔农村地区,只有当女人生了孩子才被视为成年人。她是《瘘政治:尼日尔的生育伤痛和对节制的追求》的作者。在尼日尔的部分地区,所有孩子都死了的女人被称为wabi,意为果实还没成熟就凋落的树。

Married men in Niger say they want, on average, 12 children. Asked if her husband would like more, Ms Nyero says: “Yes, of course.” She adds: “If he had money, he would marry more wives and have more children. But he hasn’t got money. So, he has to stick to one wife.”

尼日尔的已婚男人说平均想要12个孩子。当被问起她的丈夫是否想要更多的孩子,Nyero回答:“当然了!”她补充说道:“如果他有钱,他会娶更多的老婆,生更多的孩子。但是他没有钱。所以,他只能和一个老婆生孩子。”

Ms Nyero adds with a chuckle that she pities childless people, such as the correspondent from The Economist interviewing her. Her approach to child-rearing is loving, fatalistic and far removed from the “helicopter parenting” so common in rich countries. Asked where her two-year-old son is, she grins nonchalantly and looks around the yard. “He was around playing here, but he has wandered off into the fields,” she shrugs.