新闻是有分量的

时时彩天游平台'(5)

2019-05-01 10:34栏目:新闻

Ms Chung has now moved back to Seoul. Her husband has found a new job with a broadcasting company that lets him get home at a reasonable hour every night. This is unusual in South Korea, where male white-collar workers are expected to put in punishing hours and then go drinking with colleagues. The husbands of Ms Chung’s friends are rarely home before midnight.

Chung现在已经搬回首尔来。她丈夫在一家广播公司找了一份新工作,这样他可以每天晚上在合理的时间内回家。这在韩国十分少见。在韩国,男性白领工作者需要投入大量的时间和精力工作,然后和同事一起去喝酒。Chung朋友的老公很少在午夜前到家。

The pressure on South Korean mothers is unusually intense. Their bosses often assume that they will quit. Employers are legally obliged to offer 12 months of maternity leave, but often find ways to avoid it, complains Ms Chung. The average Korean husband does far less child care or housework than his Western peer.

韩国母亲的压力非常大。她们的老板常常认为她们会辞职。Chung抱怨道,用人单位在法律上有义务保障女性12个月的产假,但是用人单位总是想方设法绕开这项政策。比起西方发达国家,韩国丈夫在照料孩子和做家务方面做得少得多。

Moreover, the competition to get one’s children into the right university is ferocious. Families spend a fortune on cram schools, despite attempts by the government to restrict them. Mothers spend hours nagging their children to study and preparing snacks so they can stay longer in the library. Ms Chung wants her son to have the best education possible, which will be horribly expensive. She would like more children but doubts that would be compatible with her desire to go back to work. Also, if she had several kids she could not afford to educate them properly, she says.

再者,让孩子进入好大学的竞争异常激烈。尽管政府给培训学校设置各种限制,韩国家庭在培训学校的花销不菲。韩国母亲花不少时间叨念孩子学习、准备点心,就是为了让他们能在图书馆多学习一会儿。Chung想给她儿子最好的教育,但是那极其昂贵。她也想多生几个孩子,但是怀疑这与回归职场的愿望相互兼容。并且,她说如果她多生几个孩子,她就不能给他们良好的教育。

Some young South Korean women go further, and say that even one child is too many. “I look at my mother and how she’s sacrificed everything and people don’t even notice. I don’t want my life to be like that,” says a 22-year-old student in Seoul.

一些年轻韩国女性观点更为激进,认为生育一个孩子都多。“看到我母亲,以及她是如何牺牲了一切却被人们无视,我就不想要那样的生活,”一名22岁的首尔大学生这样说道。

South Korea is an extreme example, but women in other rich countries make the same basic calculation. Instead of starting to have babies shortly after they reach puberty, as women have done throughout history, they postpone motherhood until they have spent years in education and then established themselves in a career. If they have children, they typically have only one or two, because giving them the best start in life is expensive. They assume, with good cause, that none of their offspring will die young.

韩国是一个极端的例子,但是在其他富裕国家的女性也做着同样的基本打算。与历史上女性进入青春期不久后就开始生育不同,她们在接受了多年的教育并且在职场上立足之后才开始扮演母亲的角色。通常情况下,她们只生一个或两个孩子。因为给孩子生活上最好的开端是昂贵的。他们也有充分的理由相信,她们的孩子不会夭折。

Women in middle-income countries (ie, most women) behave a lot like women in rich countries, which is why their fertility rate is but a whisker above the replacement level. In China, the norm of having just one child has become so ingrained since the one-child policy was introduced in 1979 that even after its progressive relaxation in recent years, the birth rate has continued to fall. Officially, the fertility rate is 1.6, but some demographers suspect it is actually lower. In India, which is far poorer, the rate is nonetheless only 2.3.

中等收入的国家的女性(即大多数女性)和富裕国家的女性的行为模式很像,这也就是为什么她们的生育率只高出生育替代率一点点。在中国,自1979年实施独生子女政策之后,一孩的常态根深蒂固,即使近几年生育政策不断放松,生育率仍然继续走低。官方公布的生育率为1.6,但一些人口学家怀疑生育率事实上更低。印度与中国相比要穷很多,但生育率也只有2.3。

Stuck in the middle with two

夹在两者之间