新闻是有分量的

时时彩天游平台'(7)

2019-05-01 10:34栏目:新闻

大量的学术研究支持这一论证。教育通过给女性其他的选择,降低了生育率。教育增加了女性找到有薪工作的几率。教育减少了女性对丈夫的经济依赖,使得即便她们的丈夫想多生孩子,她们也更容易拒绝。教育让女性拥有心理工具以及自信去质疑诸如“尽可能多生孩子”这样的传统规范。教育让女性更有可能去理解、使用避孕措施。教育改变了她们对孩子的目标追求——进而改变了她们选择生育孩子的数量。

Education also takes a long time. A woman who studies until she is 25 and then spends ten years building a career has just a few years left to get pregnant before she no longer can. Technology may someday remove this constraint, but for now it is hard to have eight children unless, like Ms Nyero, you start early.

教育也需要花费很长时间。一个女性25步入职场,花10年时间立业,还剩下几年时间可以怀孕。科技可能有一天能解除这项限制,但是至少在现在这种情况下要生八个孩子十分困难的,除非像Nyero一样早点开始生育。

The difference that education makes is especially notable in countries where fertility has only just started to fall. In Ethiopia, for example, a household survey in 2005 found that the fertility rate for women with no formal schooling was 6.1; for women with secondary education or more, it was only 2.0. Educating girls better is one of the few goals that nearly every government agrees is important. So it would be surprising if the girls of the future were worse educated than today’s. The proportion worldwide who complete primary school has risen from 76% in 1997 to 90%. The last mile may be the hardest, but there is no doubt what parents and voters want.

教育产生的影响在生育率刚刚开始下降的国家十分显著。比如,在2005年埃塞俄比亚的一项家庭调查发现,对于没有接受过正规教育的女性生育率为6.1;接受过中学教育及以上的女性生育率为2.0。更好地教育女孩是为数不多几乎每个政府都认同的重要目标之一。所以,要是今后的女孩比现在的女孩受教育程度更低,那才让人惊奇。全球完成小学教育的比例从1997年的76%上升至90%。完成最后这一步可能是最难的,但是父母和选民想要什么已经不容置疑。

A transition that took 200 years in the West, from seven children to two, can now take place astonishingly fast. When rural folk move to the city, it can happen in a single generation. Consider Dorothy Achieng, a 29-year-old receptionist at an accountancy firm in Nairobi. Her mother had eight children, one of whom died. Dorothy has two. Whereas her mother could barely read and put her older children to work on a small family farm, Ms Achieng hopes to keep hers in school.

西方世界用了200年才完成一个家庭从7个孩子到2个孩子的转变,如今这样的转变快得让人震惊。农村人口流向城市,只需要一代人就可以实现这样的转变。Dorothy Achieng是一名在Nairobi一家会计公司的29岁接待员。她的母亲有8个孩子,有一个过世了。Dorothy只有两个孩子。Dorothy的母亲算是一个文盲,她让她大一点的孩子在小型家庭农场劳作,而Achieng希望让她的孩子接受学校教育。

Ms Achieng is typical of those who move from the countryside to the city. The rural fertility rate in Kenya is 4.5; the urban one, 3.1. Most of Ms Achieng’s friends, like her, have far fewer children than their parents did. No one she knows has seven or eight children.

Achieng是从农村迁往城市的典型一员。肯尼亚的农村生育率为4.5,城市生育率为3.1。大多数Achieng的朋友像她一样,比他们的父母少生很多孩子。她认识的人没有谁生育了七八个孩子。

Although she lives in a slum and has no running water in her modest two-room flat, Ms Achieng is part of the aspiring middle class. Indeed, on her salary of just $200 a month, she pays for a private school that costs $50 per child, per term. It is a strain, but she thinks it is worth it. She does not plan to have more children. If she did, she says, she could not “give them the best”.

尽管她住在贫民窟,在小两室的公寓里没有自来水,Achieng却是有抱负的中产阶级一份子。的确,月收入只有200美元,她要按照每个孩子每个学期50美元的标准支付给私立学校。(她孩子就读的私立学校每学期每生要花费她50美元。)这的确是不小的负担,但是她认为这值得。她不打算生更多的孩子。她说,如果她再生孩子,她就不能“给他们最好的了”。

Asked what they want to be when they grow up, her two boys stop whizzing around her flat in pursuit of a remote controlled car. “A doctor,” says Crispian, who is nine. Lennox-Lewis, aged seven, chimes in: “And I want to be a lawyer.”

当被问起他们长大了之后想做什么时,她的两个儿子停止在公寓里追逐着去抢一辆遥控车。“医生”,九岁的Crispian回答道。“我想当律师”九岁的Lennox-Lewis插话回应道。